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Changes in vaccination schedules, particularly the prolongation of the booster intervals for some vaccine components, represents a challenge for veterinarians as well as for pet owners. For many years the annual revaccination of dogs and cats was a well-established routine procedure. Some understanding of the scientific background behind these changed recommendations is helpful for veterinarians when making decisions and advising dog and cat owners. This article offers an overview of the current knowledge on the duration of vaccine-induced immunity and the recommendations for booster vaccinations published by expert groups.
Keywords: persistence of antibodies, challenge studies, vaccination, dog, cat
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the duration of vaccine-induced immunity.
Annual health checks
The importance of the annual health checks for dogs and cats needs to be stressed. One aspect has to be vaccination, but contrary to earlier yearly routine vaccination procedures, it should be an occasion to reassess vaccination management and administer selected vaccines depending on the patient’s situation.
In older animals the level of immunity declines because of an impairment of cell-mediated immune functions with age (immunosenescence).
Vaccination guidelines are non-binding recommendations based on current scientific knowledge. They are available from various expert groups.
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by Karin Möstl
Duration of vaccine-induced immunity
Volume 26(4), Winter 2016
This paper is based on the FECAVA lecture delivered at the 22nd EuroCongress in Vienna, Austria in June 2016.
Approach to the emergency patient
‘First life, then limb’ – the approach to the emergency patient differs from that to a normal patient. Triage is the key word. In this 30-minute tutorial, Sailen Jasani talks you through the key steps of emergency medicine in companion animals.
Examples of pain scales and assessment questionnaires
Does it hurt?
Pain scales can be used as a means of trying to improve objectivity by quantifying pain for example to:
• Potentially improve reliability of (re)assessment
• Allow analgesic efficacy to be assessed and drug doses titrated
• Provide better consistency for hospitalised patients; facilitate more long-term pain management of hospitalised patients by trying to provide some consistency and hand-over between different staff members working on consecutive shifts.
• Facilitate statistical analysis and clinical research
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DVM Univ. Professor (ret)
Karin Möstl qualified from the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Austria) in 1977 and obtained her DVM in 1978. In the same year she became assistant lecturer at the Institute of Virology of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, where she obtained her habilitation in Virology in 1991 (‘Pathogenesis, diagnosis and prevention of coronavirus infections’) and was appointed associate professor. Part of this work (‘Porcine coronaviruses in Austria’) was honoured by the Austrian Association of Veterinarians.
From 1991 to 1996 she was head of the Institute of Virology and from 2004 until her retirement, she held the position of head of the Clinical Virology department of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. She undertook postgraduate studies in Budapest, Ghent and Zürich. From 1998 to 2000 she carried out expert work for the EU about the geographical risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.
Her research interests include virus infections of cats and dogs, especially coronaviruses, as well as pestivirus infections in ruminants. Additionally she has a special interest in teaching Veterinary Virology.
From 1999 to 2008 she was editor-in-chief of ‘Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift – Veterinary Medicine Austria’. From September 2008 until her retirement in 2013, she was Vice Dean for Study Affairs of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna.
She is married to a veterinarian and has one daughter.