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Basic monitoring during anaesthesia includes assessing the depth of anaesthesia, heart rate and rhythm, mucous membrane colour (pale, pink, red, brick red, blue), capillary refill time, pulse (rate, quality), rate and pattern of respiration, pulse oximetry, ...

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on anaesthetic complications.

While critically ill patients often need surgery for their illness or for the complications of their illness, anaesthesia based on advanced planning is crucial to understand the goals and priorities and to avoid

complications. In order for incidents not to become anaesthetic accidents, knowledge and attention to detail are essential. Critically ill patients are prone to have a low ability to maintain homeostasis and tissue oxygenation. Anaesthesia contributes additional physiological stresses that may worsen patient status. ...

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Warming up


Hypothermia (<37°C) is a common complication during anaesthesia and causes peripheral vasoconstriction, decreased cerebral circulation, arrhythmias, decreased ventilation and inhalant anaesthetic elimination and lowers the effect of analgesics.

Down under


Isoflurane and sevoflurane are minimally metabolized in the liver, which renders them ideal for use in critically ill patients with impaired liver and/or renal function. ...

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Useful links

by Ruxandra Costea

Anaesthesia considerations

for critically ill patients

Volume 26(3), Autumn 2016

Commissioned paper