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Pain is associated with a number of adverse physiological and psychological responses including unnecessary suffering, altered mentation (anxiety, agitation; dullness, depression), reduced food

intake (which may slow recovery), prolonged recumbency, self-mutilation, impaired respiration, sensitisation to noxious stimuli, excessive sympathetic stimulation, enhanced catabolism, delayed wound healing and immune suppression. It is also difficult to monitor patients effectively due to pain-induced physiological changes.

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Approach to the emergency patient


‘First life, then limb’ – the approach to the emergency patient differs from that to a normal patient. Triage is the key word. In this 30-minute tutorial, Sailen Jasani talks you through the key steps of emergency medicine in companion animals.

Quiz: Pain pathway


Click here to test your knowledge on pain signalling!


Does it hurt?


Examples of pain scales and assessment questionnaires ...


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Small talk and jibber jabber about small animal (canine, feline) veterinary emergency and critical care (ECC) with a primary care/non-referral focus. The author’s site includes learning materials, a podcast/blog, and integration to an active Facebook community.

by Shailen Jasani

Analgesia for the emergency/critical care patient –

part 1: Pain assessment

Volume 26(3), Autumn 2016

Commissioned paper